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Deutschland

Bavaria

The Kingdom of Bavaria, a German state since the tenth century, became a member state of the German Confederation between 1815 and 1866. Bavaria fought on Austria’s side in 1866, lost and gave up a small enclave in Thuringia called Kaulsdorf, the Bezirksamt Gersfeld, the Landgerichtsbezirk Orb and an indemnity of 30 million guilders. After the 1866 war, Prussia, opposed the suggestion that the southern states should join the North German Confederation in order not to alarm France.  However, there was an offensive and defensive alliance between Bavaria and Prussia. The separatist ambitions of Bavaria were thus formally given up; she had no longer "a need of France"; and in the war of 1870-71, the Bavarian army joined Prussia, under the command of the Prussian crown prince, against France. It was on the proposal of King Ludwig II that the imperial crown was offered to King William I of Prussia. Bavaria became a state of the German Empire in 1871. It was one of four independent kingdoms inside the German Empire. Under the imperial constitution of 1871, Bavaria was incorporated with the German empire, reserving however, certain separate privileges (Sonderrechte) in respect to the administration of the army, the railways, the mail, and the excise duties on beer, the rights of domicile and the insurance of real estate. The King of Bavaria was the supreme chief of the Bavarian Army. Though Bavaria became an integral part of the new German empire, she reserved a larger measure of sovereign independence than any of the other constituent states. Thus she retained a separate diplomatic service, military administration, postal, telegraph and railway systems. Bavaria had six votes in the Bundesrat and sent forty-eight deputies to the Reichstag. The Wittelsbach dynasty was the hereditary ruling family. The Kingdom was a hereditary constitutional monarchy and the Parliament had two chambers. The upper house of the Bavarian parliament (Kammer der Reichsräte) was composed of various royalty, bishops and appointees. The lower house (Kammer der Abgeordneten) or chamber of representatives consisted of 159 deputies, based on a population split of the census of 1875. Voting was universal secret and direct.Capital city was Munich, 4th largest city in the empire. Population of Bavaria was 7.1 Million in 1914. The majority of the inhabitants (about 70 percent) were Roman Catholics. The Protestant-Evangelical Church claimed about 29 percent. The incorporation treaty was ratified by the Bavarian chambers on the 21st of January 1871, though not without considerable opposition. The hostility was increased by the Kulturkampf, due to the promulgation in 1870 of the dogma of papal infallibility. The federal law expelling the Jesuits was proclaimed in Bavaria on the 6th of September 1871 and was extended to the Redemptorists in 1873, but Bavarian " Sonderrechte " founded on traditional racial and religious antagonism to the Prussians, continued, though it exhibited itself officially only in the limitation to display only the Bavarian flag on public buildings on the emperor's birthday; a provision which was modified to allow the Bavarian and imperial flags to be hung side by side.
Bavaria had a military treaty with Prussia from November 23, 1870.  Prior to that, there was a mutual defense alliance, which placed the Bavarian army under the Prussian king during time of war. What made Bavaria significantly different than the other states was that articles 61-68 of the North German Confederation Constitution did not apply to Bavaria.  As these where the military clauses, Bavaria maintained significant independence in military matters.  This treaty was specifically referenced in the Imperial German Constitution section IX. Similar to the other kingdoms of Saxony and Württemberg, there were two Bavarian infantry regiments garrisoned in Lorraine.  However, due to the treaty of 1870 these were under control of the Bavarian II Corps in peacetime, rather than the corps area that they were stationed in. The Bavarian Army formed a separate portion of the army of the German empire, with a separate administration.  There were three separate Bavarian army corps and Bavarian regiments did not participate in the sequential numbering of the Prussian army.  The regulations applicable to other sections of the whole imperial army were, however, observed
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There were some strange maneuvers for the crown. Ludwig II was king from
1864-1886. He bankrupted the land building fairytale castles and hosting Wagner concerts. He was mysteriously drowned. Otto became King of Bavaria upon his older brother's death in 1886. However, Otto never truly ruled as King and was by some accounts not even aware that he had become King. Otto suffered from severe mental illness and had been declared insane in 1875. He was kept confined in Fürstenried Palace under medical supervision until his death. Otto's uncle, Prince Luitpold of Bavaria, served as Prince Regent for Otto until Luitpold's death. Luitpold's son Ludwig then became the next Prince Regent. The constitution of Bavaria was amended on 4 November 1913, to include a clause specifying that if a regency for reasons of incapacity lasted for ten years with no expectation that the King would ever be able to reign, the Regent could proclaim the end of the regency and assume the crown himself. The following day, Otto was deposed by his cousin, Prince Regent Ludwig, who then assumed the title Ludwig III. Otto was permitted to retain his title and honors, which he did until his death in 1916.

Luitpold Karl Joseph Wilhelm Ludwig, Prince Regent of Bavaria 1886-1912 (Würzburg 12 Mar 1821-Munich 12 Dec 1912); m.Florence 15 Apr 1844 Auguste Archdss of Austria Pss of Tuscany (Florence 1 Apr 1825-Munich 26 Apr 1864)

LUDWIG III Leopold Joseph Maria Aloys Alfred, King of Bavaria 5 Nov 1913 until the revolution in Nov 1918 (Munich 7 Jan 1845-Sárvár, Hungary 18 Oct 1921); m.Vienna 20 Feb 1868 Marie Therese Archdss of Austria Pss of Modena (Brünn 2 Jul 1849-Wildenwart 3 Feb 1919)

RUPPRECHT Maria Luitpold Ferdinand, Crown Prince of Bavaria (Munich 18 May 1869- Leutstetten 2 Aug 1955); m.1st Munich 10 Jul 1900 Marie Gabriele Dss in Bavaria (Tegernsee 9 Oct 1878-Sorrento 24 Oct 1912); m.2d Hohenburg bei Lenggries 7 Apr 1921 Antonia Pss of Luxemburg Pss von Nassau (Hohenburg 7 Oct 1899-Lenzerheide, Switzerland 31 Jul 1954)

Rupprecht,  Crown Prince of Bavaria (Munich 18 May 1869- Leutstetten 2 Aug 1955) was the son of Ludwig III and Archducess Maria Therese of Austria. He married Duchess Marie Gabriele (MG) in Bavaria in 1900.  She was the sister of Queen Elizabeth of Belgium. Their children were: Luitpold (1901-1913; Irmingard who died at 8 mos in 1903; Albrecht (1905-1996); Rudolf (1909- 1912) . Luitpold contracted polio from a playmate and died. Irmingard died of diptheria and Rudolf had diabetes. There was a stillborn daughter as well. MG died in 1912 due to a longtime kidney problem.

Rupprecht secondly married Princess Antonia of Luxemburg in 1921 when he was 53 and she was 22. Antonia (1899-1954) was one of the 6 beautiful sisters. Antonia was imprisoned, along with several of her children, in a concentration camp on order of the Nazis. This was because Rupprecht (still a tremendously popular figure in Bavaria—a Nazi stronghold) was virulently anti-Nazi. He was able to escape to Switzerland but his family was caught. Antonia was apparently never the same after this and refused to ever return to Germany after she was freed. Her health was broken by her ordeal and she died at age 55.

 

 

 

 

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Crests and coats of arms courtesy of http://www.heraldique-europeenne.org

Flags courtesy of FOTW Flags Of The World website at http://flagspot.net/flags/