The Duchy of Oldenburg was a member state of the German Confederation from 1815 to 1866 and was renamed in 1829 into Grand Duchy of Oldenburg. In 1866 Oldenburg sided with Prussia against Austria. After the Prussian-Austrian War it became a member state of the North German Confederation in 1867.  The Oldenburg military became a contingent of the Prussian Army on 15 July, 1867. Oldenburg became a member state of the German Empire in 1871.

The grand-duchy had an area of 2 479 sq. m. but it consisted of three widely separated portions of territory, the Duchy of Oldenburg, the Principality of Lübeck, and the Principality of Birkenfeld.  Oldenburg had one vote in the Bundesrat and three members in the Reichstag. Oldenburg was a Protestant country, and the Grand-Duke was required to be a member of the Lutheran Church. Birkenfeld was heavily Roman Catholic.  The population of the three combined areas was 516,000 in 1914.

Oldenburg was a hereditary constitutional monarchy and was considered one of the most liberal in Germany.  Parliament consisted of one chamber of 40 members known as the Landtag and direct secret voting was open to all taxpayers.  The local affairs of Birkenfeld and Lubeck were governed by provincial councils of fifteen members each.  Interestingly the finances of each constituent state of the grand-duchy were kept and managed separately.

FRIEDRICH AUGUST, Grand Duke of Oldenburg, renounced the throne 11 Nov 1918 (Oldenburg 16 Nov 1852-Oldenburg 24 Feb 1931); m.1st Berlin 18 Feb 1878 Elisabeth Pss of Prussia (Potsdam 8 Feb 1857-Schloß Adolfseck 28 Aug 1895); m.2d Schwerin 24 Oct 1896 Elisabeth, Dss of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (Ludwigslust 10 Aug 1869-Schaumburg 3 Sep 1955)





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